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Due to the process of evangelization , when the first monastic temples and monasteries were built, their own models were projected, such as the mendicant monasteries , unique in their type in architecture.
The interaction between Spaniards and natives gave rise to artistic styles such as the so-called tequitqui from Nahuatl: Years later the baroque and mannerism were imposed in large cathedrals and civil buildings, while rural areas are built haciendas or stately farms with Mozarabic tendencies.
Romanticists from a past seen through archeology show images of medieval Europe, Islamic and pre-Hispanic Mexico in the form of architectural elements in the construction of international exhibition pavilions looking for an identity typical of the national culture.
The art nouveau , and the art deco were styles introduced into the design of the Palacio de Bellas Artes to mark the identity of the Mexican nation with Greek-Roman and pre-Hispanic symbols.
The emergence of the new Mexican architecture was born as a formal order of the policies of a nationalist state that sought modernity and the differentiation of other nations.
The Jalisco School was a proposal of those socio-political movements that the country demanded. Mexican architecture is a cultural phenomenon born of the ideology of nationalist governments of the 20th century, which was shaping the identity image by its colorful and variegated ornamental elements inherited from ancestral cultures, classical and monumental forms and, subsequently, the incorporation of modernism and cutting-edge international trends.
In ethnic and cultural terms, Lo mexicano corresponds only to everything that is referred to the Aztec culture; therefore, ethnically Mexicans are those who are also known as Nahuas and whose language is Nahuatl.
In legal terms and in accordance with the Constitution , Mexican is a citizen born within the territory of the United Mexican States or whoever has decided adopt the Mexican citizenship.
The Mexican could be what characterizes the being of Mexico and its people; however, it is an ethnic concept that only defines the mestizo identity that had been related for a long time and that is limited with respect to the ethnic diversity of the country.
It is an intellectual construction product of the approaches of specialists to the cultural reality of the country. In trying to capture in a single figure the multicultural reality of Mexico, the result of the intellectual analysis has produced a series of stereotypes and truisms about what it is to be a Mexican.
This discourse about The Mexican has been used in the political field to legitimize power, and at the same time it is imposed on the population of the country as a fact beyond all doubt.
The intellectual construction of the mestizo is in dialogue with the triumph of revolutionary nationalism, which was born after the Mexican Revolution.
In the reflection on the subject the character of the Mexican, the mexicanity, the definition of a Mexican have participated, among others: Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica.
The most well known prehispanic poet is Nezahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica.
Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, painted the Man at the Crossroads at the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed the next year because of the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader Lenin.
Mesoamerican architecture is mostly noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt. Spanish Colonial architecture is marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain.
Mexico, as the center of New Spain has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style. Mexican films from the Golden Age in the s and s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years.
Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. Some Mexican actors have achieved recognition as Hollywood stars.
There are three major television companies in Mexico that own the primary networks and broadcast covering all nation, Televisa , TV Azteca and Imagen Television.
Grupo Multimedios is another media conglomerate with Spanish-language broadcasting in Mexico, Spain, and the United States.
Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture. Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe, especially Spain.
In , Mexico presented the candidature of its gastronomy for World Heritage Site of UNESCO, being the first occasion in which a country had presented its gastronomic tradition for this purpose.
The origin of the current Mexican cuisine is established during the Spanish colonization, being a mixture of the foods of Spain with native indigenous ingredients.
Other Indigenous products are many beans. Similarly, some cooking techniques used today are inherited from pre-Hispanic peoples, such as the nixtamalization of corn, the cooking of food in ovens at ground level, grinding in molcajete and metate.
With the Spaniards came the pork, beef and chicken meats; peppercorn , sugar, milk and all its derivatives, wheat and rice, citrus fruits and another constellation of ingredients that are part of the daily diet of Mexicans.
From this meeting of millennia old two culinary traditions, were born pozole , mole sauce , barbacoa and tamale is in its current forms, the chocolate , a large range of breads , tacos , and the broad repertoire of Mexican street foods.
It is commonly believed that football was introduced in Mexico by Cornish miners at the end of the 19th century. By a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence.
The Mexican professional baseball league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol. While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles.
Mexico has had several players signed by Major League teams, the most famous of them being Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela. Bullfighting is a popular sport in the country, and almost all large cities have bullrings.
Mexico is an international power in professional boxing at the amateur level, several Olympic boxing medals have also been won by Mexico.
The current coat of arms of Mexico Spanish: It depicts a Mexican golden eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus devouring a rattlesnake. Since the early s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan.
Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings.
Some public universities in Mexico, such as the University of Guadalajara , have signed agreements with the U. Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the federal republic in North America. For other uses, see Mexico disambiguation.
None at federal level [b]. Spanish and 68 Amerindian languages . Pre-Columbian Mexico and Mesoamerican chronology. Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Mexican War of Independence. A jaguar at the Chapultepec Zoo. The zoo is known for its success in breeding programs of threatened species.
Federal government of Mexico. Law enforcement in Mexico. Foreign relations of Mexico. Economic history of Mexico. Electricity sector in Mexico.
The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. History of science and technology in Mexico.
Water supply and sanitation in Mexico. Metropolitan areas of Mexico and List of cities in Mexico. Religion in Mexico census  Roman Catholicism.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Many codices made both during Pre-hispanic Mexico and in the Spanish colony are preserved. The art of the Colonial Mexico center of New Spain developed a large number of painters born in Mexico.
Now these works are preserved in museums in many cities of Mexico. A cultural expression starting in the s created by a group of intellectual Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution , reinforced by the Great Depression and the First World War.
Mexican literature and Mesoamerican literature. Mexican television and List of newspapers in Mexico. The first chocolate version liquid was made by indigenous people in present-day Mexico, and was exported from Mexico to Europe after the Spanish conquest.
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Frederick Catherwood Lithograph of Stela D. Copan , from Views of Ancient Monuments. Museo Nacional de Arte. Oil painting of Vicente Guerrero , leader of independence and president of Mexico.
Posada published illustrations for many broadsheets. The Academy of San Carlos continued to advocate classic, European-style training until Both moved to the south of the city in the midth century, to Ciudad Universitaria and Xochimilco respectively, leaving only some graduate programs in fine arts in the original academy building in the historic center.
While a shift to more indigenous and Mexican themes appeared in the 19th century, the Mexican Revolution from to had a dramatic effect on Mexican art.
The government became an ally to many of the intellectuals and artists in Mexico City   and commissioned murals for public buildings to reinforce its political messages including those that emphasized Mexican rather than European themes.
These were not created for popular or commercial tastes; however, they gained recognition not only in Mexico, but in the United States.
This production of art in conjunction with government propaganda is known as the Mexican Modernist School or the Mexican Muralist Movement, and it redefined art in Mexico.
The first true fresco in the building was the work of Jean Charlot. However, technical errors were made in the construction of these murals: In the monastery area, Montenegro painted the Feast of the Holy Cross, which depicts Vasconcelos as the protector of Muralists.
Vasconcelos was later blanked out and a figure of a woman was painted over him. The first protagonist in the production of modern murals in Mexico was Dr.
He changed his name in order to identify himself as Mexican. While he had some success as a painter in Guadalajara, his radical ideas against academia and the government prompted him to move to more liberal Mexico City.
In , months before the start of the Mexican Revolution , Atl painted the first modern mural in Mexico. He taught major artists to follow him, including those who came to dominate Mexican mural painting.
The muralist movement reached its height in the s with four main protagonists: Atl prompted these artists to break with European traditions, using bold indigenous images, lots of color, and depictions of human activity, especially of the masses, in contrast to the solemn and detached art of Europe.
These muralists revived the fresco technique for their mural work, although Siqueiros moved to industrial techniques and materials such as the application of pyroxilin , a commercial enamel used for airplanes and automobiles.
This four-year project went on to incorporate other contemporary indigenous themes, and it eventually encompassed frescoes that extended three stories high and two city blocks long.
Another important figure of this time period was Frida Kahlo , the wife of Diego Rivera. While she painted canvases instead of murals, she is still considered part of the Mexican Modernist School as her work emphasized Mexican folk culture and colors.
Her portraits, purposefully small, addressed a wide range of topics not being addressed by the mainstream art world at the time. These included motherhood, domestic violence, and male egoism.
Her paintings never had subjects wearing lavish jewelry or fancy clothes like those found in muralist paintings. Instead, she would sparsely dress herself up, and when there were accessories, it added that much more importance to them.
Although she was the wife of Diego Rivera, her self-portraits stayed rather obscured from the public eye until well after her passing in Her art has grown in popularity and she is seen by many to be one of the earliest and most influential feminist artists of the 20th century.
Diego Rivera Mural in the main stairwell of the National Palace. David Alfaro Siqueiros , Mural at Tecpan. Despite maintaining an active national art scene, Mexican artists after the muralist period had a difficult time breaking into the international art market.
One reason for this is that in the Americas, Mexico City was replaced by New York as the center of the art community, especially for patronage.
This was mostly passive, with the government giving grants to artists who conformed to their requirements. The first to break with the nationalistic and political tone of the muralist movement was Rufino Tamayo.
For this reason he was first appreciated outside of Mexico. Like them he explored Mexican identity in his work after the Mexican Revolution.
However, he rejected the political Social Realism popularized by the three other artists and was rejected by the new establishment.
He left for New York in where success allowed him to exhibit in his native Mexico. His lack of support for the post-Revolutionary government was controversial.
Because of this he mostly remained in New York, continuing with his success there and later in Europe. His rivalry with the main three Mexican muralists continued both in Mexico and internationally through the s.
In the s, Wolfgang Paalen published the extremely influential DYN magazine in Mexico City, which focussed on a transitional movement between surrealism to abstract expressionism.
They rejected social realism and nationalism and incorporated surrealism, visual paradoxes, and elements of Old World painting styles. Like Kahlo before him, he drew himself but instead of being centered, his image is often to the side, as an observer.
The goal was to emphasize the transformation of received visual culture. His work was a mix of European abstraction and Latin American influences, including Mesoamerican ones.
The third Independent Salon was staged in In the exhibition Mexico: In the mids, the next major movement in Mexico was Neomexicanismo, a slightly surreal, somewhat kitsch and postmodern version of Social Realism that focused on popular culture rather than history.
This generation of artists were interested in traditional Mexican values and exploring their roots—often questioning or subverting them.
Art from the s to the present is roughly categorized as Postmodern, although this term has been used to describe works created before the s.
The success of Mexican artists is demonstrated by their inclusion in galleries in New York, London, and Zurich.
Kurimanzutto —a private gallery was founded in In the Olmedo Museum  was opened to the public. The great Mexican muralists of the post-revolution developed, with the paint mural, the concept of "public art", an art to be seen by Ias masses in major public buildings of the time, and could not be bought and transported easily elsewhere, as with easel painting.
Just like many other parts in the world, Mexico has adopted some modern techniques like with the existence of street artists depicting popular paintings from Mexico throughout history or original content.
These include ceramics, wall hangings, certain types of paintings, and textiles. They are considered artistic because they contain decorative details or are painted in bright colors, or both.
These were joined by other colors introduced by European and Asian contact, always in bold tones. Design motifs vary from purely indigenous to mostly European with other elements thrown in.
They are especially prevalent in wall-hangings and ceramics. These are small commemorative paintings or other artwork created by a believer, honoring the intervention of a saint or other figure.
The untrained style of ex-voto painting was appropriated during the midth century by Kahlo, who believed they were the most authentic expression of Latin American art.
Cinematography came to Mexico during the Mexican Revolution from the U. It was initially used to document the battles of the war. Revolutionary general Pancho Villa himself starred in some silent films.
Villa consciously used cinema to shape his public image. The first sound film in Mexico was made in , called Desde Santa.
The first Mexican film genre appeared between and , called ranchero. These films featured archetypal star figures and symbols based on broad national mythologies.
Settings were often ranches, the battlefields of the Revolution, and cabarets. Mexico had two advantages in filmmaking during this period.
The first was a generation of talented actors and filmmakers. In the s, the government became interested in the industry in order to promote cultural and political values.
Much of the production during the Golden Age was financed with a mix of public and private money, with the government eventually taking a larger role.
This gave the government extensive censorship rights through deciding which projects to finance. The Golden Age ended in the late s, with the s dominated by poorly made imitations of Hollywood westerns and comedies.
These films were increasingly shot outdoors and popular films featured stars from lucha libre. Art and experimental film production in Mexico has its roots in the same period, which began to bear fruit in the s.
His first major success was with Reed: Insurgent Mexico followed by a biography of Frida Kahlo called Frida He is the most consistently political of modern Mexican directors.
In the s, he filmed Latino Bar and Dollar Mambo His silent films generally have not had commercial success. In the late 20th century the main proponent of Mexican art cinema was Arturo Ripstein Jr..
Some of his classic films include El Castillo de la pureza , Lugar sin limites and La reina de la noche exploring topics such as family ties and even homosexuality, dealing in cruelty, irony, and tragedy.
Another factor was that many Mexican film making facilities were taken over by Hollywood production companies in the s, crowding out local production.
The movie was banned by the government but received support in Mexico and abroad. The film was shown although not widely. Starting in the s, Mexican cinema began to make a comeback, mostly through co-production with foreign interests.
Those for a more domestic audience tend to be more personal and more ambiguously political such as Pueblo de Madera , La Vida Conjugal , and Angel de fuego.
Those geared for international audiences have more stereotypical Mexican images and include Solo con tu Pareja , La Invencion de Cronos along with Como Agua para Chocolate.
Film professionals in the early 21st century tend to be at least bilingual Spanish and English and are better able to participate in the global market for films than their predecessors.
Photography came to Mexico in the form of daguerreotype about six months after its discovery, and it spread quickly.
It was initially used for portraits of the wealthy because of its high cost , and for shooting landscapes and pre-Hispanic ruins. Modern photography in Mexico did not begin as an art form, but rather as documentation, associated with periodicals and government projects.
This image was European-based with some indigenous elements for distinction. Like Kahlo, he began his career in the Porfirato, but his career was focused on photography for periodicals.
He began to focus not only on portraits of the main protagonists such as Francisco Villa and general battle scenes, but on executions and the dead.
He focused on people whose faces showed such expressions as pain, kindness, and resignation. His work during this time produced a large collection of photographs, many of which are familiar to Mexicans as they have been widely reprinted and reused, often without credit to Casasola.
After the war, Casasola continued to photograph common people, especially migrants to Mexico City during the s and s. His total known archives comprise about half a million images with many of his works archived in the former monastery of San Francisco in Pachuca.
Kahlo and Casasola are considered the two most important photographers to develop the medium in Mexico, with Kahlo defining architectural photography and Casasolas establishing photojournalism.
Neither man thought of himself as an artist—especially not Casasolas—who thought of himself as a historian in the Positivist tradition, but the photography of both show attention to detail, lighting, and placement of subjects for emotional or dramatic effect.
For the rest of the 20th century, most photography was connected to documentation. However, artistic trends from both inside and outside the country had an effect.
In the s, the dominant photographic style was Pictorialism , in which images had a romantic or dream-like quality due to the use of filters and other techniques.
American Edward Weston broke with this tradition, taking these effects away for more realistic and detailed images. Manuel Alvarez Bravo experimented with abstraction in his photography and formed his own personal style concerned with Mexican rites and customs.
He was active from the s until his death in the s. Like other artists of the 20th century, he was concerned with balancing international artistic trends with the expression of Mexican culture and people.
His photographic techniques were concerned with transforming the ordinary into the fantastic. From the end of the s to the s his photography developed along with new technologies such as color, using the same themes.
In the s, he experimented with female nudes. These post-Revolution photographers influenced the generations after them, but the emphasis remained on documentary journalism, especially for newspapers.
For this reason, the focus remained on social issues. During the s, a fusion of various styles retained a social focus.
Photography in Mexico from the latter 20th century on remains mostly focused on photojournalism and other kinds of documentary.
Francisco Mata de Rosas is considered the most notable photographer in contemporary Mexico mostly working with documentaries. Patricia Aridjis works with social themes, mostly to illustrate books.
One of these is Javier Orozco who specializes in interiors. However, purely artistic photography has had an impact.
The photographs set off a wave of social criticism as well as tabloid gossip. General Emiliano Zapata , leader of revolutionaries in Morelos beginning in and ending in his assassination in .
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