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The winners of the match, England, were awarded the Millennium Trophy which then became the trophy for the annual match between the teams.

The Millennium Trophy is currently held by Ireland, who won the most recent match 24—15 at the Twickenham Stadium during the Six Nations Championship.

In the Home Nations Championship — and — , England played Ireland on 41 occasions, England winning 27, Ireland 13 with one match having been drawn.

In the Five Nations — and — , England played Ireland on 70 occasions, England winning 38, Ireland 25 with seven matches having been drawn.

In these matches, England have scored points, and Ireland In the Six Nations —present , England have played Ireland on 19 occasions, England winning 8, Ireland 11 and no matches have been drawn.

In other test matches, England have played Ireland on three occasions , and , with England winning all three. In these matches, England have scored 62 points, and Ireland From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Head-to-head records of Tier 1 rugby union national teams. France Ireland Italy Scotland Wales. England Ireland Italy Scotland Wales.

England France Italy Scotland Wales. England France Ireland Scotland Wales. England France Ireland Italy Wales.

England France Ireland Italy Scotland. England national rugby union team. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot. Ireland national rugby union team.

Irish Rugby Football Union. In , during disturbances arising out of the anti-conscription campaign, six civilians died in confrontations with the police and British Army and over 1, were arrested.

Armistice Day was marked by severe rioting in Dublin, which left over British soldiers injured. Cork, four rifles were seized from the Eyeries barracks in March and men from the barracks were beaten that August.

The attacks brought a British military presence from the summer of , which only briefly quelled the violence, and an increase in police raids.

Treacy had stated to me that the only way of starting a war was to kill someone, and we wanted to start a war, so we intended to kill some of the police whom we looked upon as the foremost and most important branch of the enemy forces.

The only regret that we had following the ambush was that there were only two policemen in it, instead of the six we had expected. This is widely regarded as the beginning of the War of Independence.

As regards the Republican prisoners, we must always remember that this country is at war with England and so we must in a sense regard them as necessary casualties in the great fight.

Volunteers began to attack British government property, carry out raids for arms and funds and target and kill prominent members of the British administration.

The first was Resident Magistrate John C. Milling, who was shot dead in Westport, County Mayo , for having sent Volunteers to prison for unlawful assembly and drilling.

Others, notably Arthur Griffith , preferred a campaign of civil disobedience rather than armed struggle. During the early part of the conflict, roughly from to the middle of , there was a relatively limited amount of violence.

Much of the nationalist campaign involved popular mobilisation and the creation of a republican "state within a state" in opposition to British rule.

So far as the mass of people are concerned, the policy of the day is not active but a passive policy.

Their policy is not so much to attack the Government as to ignore it and to build up a new government by its side.

Its members and barracks especially the more isolated ones were vulnerable, and they were a source of much-needed arms. The RIC numbered 9, men stationed in 1, barracks throughout Ireland.

Often, the RIC were reduced to buying food at gunpoint, as shops and other businesses refused to deal with them. By contrast with the effectiveness of the widespread public boycott of the police, the military actions carried out by the IRA against the RIC at this time were relatively limited.

Other aspects of mass participation in the conflict included strikes by organised workers, in opposition to the British presence in Ireland. In Limerick in April , a general strike was called by the Limerick Trades and Labour Council, as a protest against the declaration of a "Special Military Area" under the Defence of the Realm Act , which covered most of Limerick city and a part of the county.

Special permits, to be issued by the RIC, would now be required to enter the city. Blackleg train drivers were brought over from England, after drivers refused to carry British troops.

The strike badly hampered British troop movements until December , when it was called off. In early April , abandoned RIC barracks were burned to the ground to prevent them being used again, along with almost one hundred income tax offices.

The collapse of the court system demoralised the RIC and many police resigned or retired. The Inland Revenue ceased to operate in most of Ireland.

The British Liberal journal, The Nation , wrote in August that "the central fact of the present situation in Ireland is that the Irish Republic exists".

The British forces, in trying to re-assert their control over the country, often resorted to arbitrary reprisals against republican activists and the civilian population.

The ambushers were a unit of the No 2 Cork Brigade, under command of Liam Lynch , who wounded four of the other soldiers and disarmed the rest before fleeing in their cars.

Arthur Griffith estimated that in the first 18 months of the conflict, British forces carried out 38, raids on private homes, arrested 4, suspects, committed 1, armed assaults, carried out indiscriminate shootings and burnings in towns and villages, and killed 77 people including women and children.

The jury at the inquest into his death returned a verdict of wilful murder against David Lloyd George the British Prime Minister and District Inspector Swanzy, among others.

Swanzy was later tracked down and killed in Lisburn , County Antrim. This pattern of killings and reprisals escalated in the second half of and in Michael Collins was a driving force behind the independence movement.

The G Division men were a relatively small political division active in subverting the republican movement and were detested by the IRA as often they were used to identify volunteers, who would have been unknown to British soldiers or the later Black and Tans.

Collins set up the "Squad" , a group of men whose sole duty was to seek out and kill "G-men" and other British spies and agents.

One spy who escaped with his life was F. Digby Hardy , who was exposed by Arthur Griffith before an "IRA" meeting, which in fact consisted of Irish and foreign journalists, and then advised to take the next boat out of Dublin.

While the paper membership of the IRA, carried over from the Irish Volunteers , was over , men, Michael Collins estimated that only 15, were active in the IRA during the course of the war, with about 3, on active service at any time.

The IRA benefitted from the widespread help given to them by the general Irish population, who generally refused to pass information to the RIC and the British military and who often provided " safe houses " and provisions to IRA units "on the run".

The proposal was immediately dismissed. The British increased the use of force; reluctant to deploy the regular British Army into the country in greater numbers, they set up two paramilitary police units to aid the RIC.

Deployed to Ireland in March , most came from English and Scottish cities. While officially they were part of the RIC, in reality they were a paramilitary force.

In response to IRA actions, in the summer of , the Tans burned and sacked numerous small towns throughout Ireland, including Balbriggan , Trim , Templemore and others.

In July , another quasi-military police body, the Auxiliaries , consisting of 2, former British army officers, arrived in Ireland.

The Auxiliary Division had a reputation just as bad as the Tans for their mistreatment of the civilian population but tended to be more effective and more willing to take on the IRA.

The policy of reprisals, which involved public denunciation or denial and private approval, was famously satirised by Lord Hugh Cecil when he said: It replaced the trial by jury by courts-martial by regulation for those areas where IRA activity was prevalent.

This act has been interpreted by historians as a choice by Prime Minister David Lloyd George to put down the rebellion in Ireland rather than negotiate with the republican leadership.

It was in this period that a mutiny broke out among the Connaught Rangers , stationed in India. Two were killed whilst trying to storm an armoury and one was later executed.

A number of events dramatically escalated the conflict in late Then, on 21 November , there was a day of dramatic bloodshed in Dublin.

The Squad shot 19 people, killing 14 and wounding 5. These consisted of British Army officers, police officers and civilians.

The dead included members of the Cairo Gang and a courts-martial officer, and were killed at different places around Dublin.

Fourteen civilians were killed, including one of the players, Michael Hogan , and a further 65 people were wounded.

The official account was that the three men were shot "while trying to escape", which was rejected by Irish nationalists, who were certain the men had been tortured then murdered.

These actions marked a significant escalation of the conflict. In response, Counties Cork, Kerry, Limerick, and Tipperary — all in the province of Munster — were put under martial law on 10 December under the Restoration of Order in Ireland Act ; this was followed on 5 January in the rest of Munster and in Counties Kilkenny and Wexford in the province of Leinster.

On 11 December, the centre of Cork City was burnt out by the Black and Tans, who then shot at firefighters trying to tackle the blaze, in reprisal for an IRA ambush in the city on 11 December which killed one Auxiliary and wounded eleven.

Attempts at a truce in December were scuppered by Hamar Greenwood , who insisted on a surrender of IRA weapons first. During the following eight months until the Truce of July , there was a spiralling of the death toll in the conflict, with 1, people including the RIC police, army, IRA volunteers and civilians, being killed in the months between January and July alone.

In addition, 4, IRA personnel or suspected sympathisers were interned in this time. Between 1 November and 7 June twenty-four men were executed by the British.

Cornelius Murphy of Millstreet , Cork was shot in Cork city. On 28 February, six more were executed, again in Cork. Twenty British soldiers were killed or injured, as well as two IRA men and three civilians.

Most of the actions in the war were on a smaller scale than this, but the IRA did have other significant victories in ambushes, for example at Millstreet in Cork and at Scramogue in Roscommon, also in March and at Tourmakeady and Carowkennedy in Mayo in May and June.

Equally common, however, were failed ambushes, the worst of which, for example at Upton and Clonmult in Cork in February , saw three and twelve IRA men killed respectively and more captured.

Fears of informers after such failed ambushes often led to a spate of IRA shootings of informers, real and imagined. The biggest single loss for the IRA, however, came in Dublin.

Symbolically, this was intended to show that British rule in Ireland was untenable. However, from a military point of view, it was a heavy defeat in which five IRA men were killed and over eighty captured.

However, it did not, as is sometimes claimed, cripple the IRA in Dublin. The Dublin Brigade carried out attacks in the city in May and 93 in June, showing a falloff in activity, but not a dramatic one.

However, by July , most IRA units were chronically short of both weapons and ammunition, with over 3, prisoners interned. Still, many military historians have concluded that the IRA fought a largely successful and lethal guerrilla war, which forced the British government to conclude that the IRA could not be defeated militarily.

A general election for the Parliament of Southern Ireland was held on 13 May. Under the terms of the Government of Ireland Act , the Parliament of Southern Ireland was therefore dissolved, and executive and legislative authority over Southern Ireland was effectively transferred to the Lord Lieutenant assisted by Crown appointees.

Over the next two days 14—15 May , the IRA killed fifteen policemen. By the time of the truce, however, many republican leaders, including Michael Collins, were convinced that if the war went on for much longer, there was a chance that the IRA campaign as it was then organised could be brought to a standstill.

Because of this, plans were drawn up to "bring the war to England". The IRA did take the campaign to the streets of Glasgow. The units charged with these missions would more easily evade capture because England was not under, and British public opinion was unlikely to accept, martial law.

These plans were abandoned because of the truce. The war of independence in Ireland ended with a truce on 11 July The conflict had reached a stalemate.

Talks that had looked promising the previous year had petered out in December when David Lloyd George insisted that the IRA first surrender their arms.

More importantly, the British government was facing severe criticism at home and abroad for the actions of British forces in Ireland. On 6 June , the British made their first conciliatory gesture, calling off the policy of house burnings as reprisals.

It had been hard pressed by the deployment of more regular British soldiers to Ireland and by the lack of arms and ammunition.

The initial breakthrough that led to the truce was credited to three people: The King, who had made his unhappiness at the behaviour of the Black and Tans in Ireland well known to his government, was dissatisfied with the official speech prepared for him for the opening of the new Parliament of Northern Ireland , created as a result of the partition of Ireland.

Smuts, a close friend of the King, suggested to him that the opportunity should be used to make an appeal for conciliation in Ireland.

The King asked him to draft his ideas on paper. Smuts prepared this draft and gave copies to the King and to Lloyd George.

Lloyd George then invited Smuts to attend a British cabinet meeting consultations on the "interesting" proposals Lloyd George had received, without either man informing the Cabinet that Smuts had been their author.

The speech, when delivered in Belfast on 22 June, was universally well received. It called on "all Irishmen to pause, to stretch out the hand of forbearance and conciliation, to forgive and to forget, and to join in making for the land they love a new era of peace, contentment, and good will.

De Valera and Lloyd George ultimately agreed to a truce that was intended to end the fighting and lay the ground for detailed negotiations.

Its terms were signed on 9 July and came into effect on 11 July. Negotiations on a settlement, however, were delayed for some months as the British government insisted that the IRA first decommission its weapons, but this demand was eventually dropped.

It was agreed that British troops would remain confined to their barracks. Most IRA officers on the ground interpreted the Truce merely as a temporary respite and continued recruiting and training volunteers.

Those killed were named in captured British files as informers before the Truce signed the previous July. Ultimately, the peace talks led to the negotiation of the Anglo-Irish Treaty 6 December , which was then ratified in triplicate: The treaty allowed Northern Ireland , which had been created by the Government of Ireland Act , to opt out of the Free State if it wished, which it duly did on 8 December under the procedures laid down.

As agreed, an Irish Boundary Commission was then created to decide on the precise location of the border of the Free State and Northern Ireland.

Since the local elections in Ireland had resulted in outright nationalist majorities in County Fermanagh , County Tyrone , the City of Derry and in many District Electoral Divisions of County Armagh and County Londonderry all north and west of the "interim" border , this might well have left Northern Ireland unviable.

However, the Commission chose to leave the border unchanged; as a trade-off, the money owed to Britain by the Free State under the Treaty was not demanded.

In April , an executive of IRA officers repudiated the treaty and the authority of the Provisional Government which had been set up to administer it.

A hardline group of Anti-Treaty IRA men occupied several public buildings in Dublin in an effort to bring down the treaty and restart the war with the British.

There were a number of armed confrontations between pro and anti-treaty troops before matters came to a head in late June President Arthur Griffith also died of a cerebral haemorrhage during the conflict.

Following the deaths of Griffith and Collins, W. Cosgrave became head of government. Cosgrave became President of the Executive Council , the first internationally recognised head of an independent Irish government.

The civil war ended in mid in defeat for the anti-treaty side. In the Government of Ireland Act enacted in December , the British government attempted to solve the conflict by creating two Home Rule parliaments in Ireland: Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland.

In this part of Ireland, which was predominantly Protestant and Unionist, there was, as a result, a very different pattern of violence from the rest of the country.

Whereas in the south and west, the conflict was between the IRA and British forces, in the north-east and particularly in Belfast , it often developed into a cycle of sectarian killings between Catholics, who were largely Nationalist, and Protestants, who were mostly Unionist.

While IRA attacks were less common in the north-east than elsewhere, the unionist community saw itself as being besieged by armed Catholic nationalists who seemed to have taken over the rest of Ireland.

As a result, they retaliated against the northern Catholic community as a whole. James Craig , for instance, wrote in The Loyalist rank and file have determined to take action The first cycle of attacks and reprisals broke out in the summer of On 19 June a week of inter-sectarian rioting and sniping started in Derry , resulting in 18 deaths.

No policeman will get in trouble for shooting any man". On 21 July , partly in response to the killing of Smyth and partly because of competition over jobs due to the high unemployment rate, loyalists marched on the Harland and Wolff shipyards in Belfast and forced over 7, Catholic and left-wing Protestant workers from their jobs.

Sectarian rioting broke out in response in Belfast and Derry, resulting in about 40 deaths and many Catholics and Protestants being expelled from their homes.

In revenge, local Loyalists burned Catholic residential areas of Lisburn — destroying over homes. While several people were later prosecuted for the burnings, no attempt seems to have been made to halt the attacks at the time.

After a lull in violence in the north over the new year, killings there intensified again in the spring of The northern IRA units came under pressure from the leadership in Dublin to step up attacks in line with the rest of the country.

Predictably, this unleashed loyalist reprisals against Catholics. The same night, two Catholics were killed on the Falls Road. The two leaders discussed the possibility of a truce in Ulster and an amnesty for prisoners.

Craig proposed a compromise settlement based on the Government of Ireland Act, , with limited independence for the South and autonomy for the North within a Home Rule context.

However, the talks came to nothing and violence in the north continued. While the fighting in the south was largely ended by the Truce on 11 July , in the north killings continued and actually escalated until the summer of In Belfast, 16 people were killed in the two days after the truce alone.

The violence in the city took place in bursts, as attacks on both Catholics and Protestants were rapidly followed by reprisals on the other community.

In this way, 20 people died in street fighting and assassinations in north and west Belfast over 29 August to 1 September and another 30 from 21—25 November.

Loyalists had by this time taken to firing and throwing bombs randomly into Catholic areas and the IRA responded by bombing trams which took Protestant workers to their places of employment.

In retaliation, Michael Collins had forty-two loyalists taken hostage in Fermanagh and Tyrone. Right after this incident, a group of B-Specials were confronted by an IRA unit at Clones in Southern territory, who demanded that they surrender.

The withdrawal of British troops from Ireland was temporarily suspended as a result of this event. Despite the setting up of a Border Commission to mediate between the two sides in late February, the IRA raided three British barracks along the border in March.

All of these actions provoked retaliatory killings in Belfast. In the two days after the Fermanagh kidnappings, 30 people lost their lives in the city, including four Catholic children and two women who were killed by a Loyalist bomb on Weaver Street.

Winston Churchill arranged a meeting between Collins and James Craig on 21 January and the southern boycott of Belfast goods was lifted but then re-imposed after several weeks.

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